Zinnia Flower Growth and Development Concerning Various Growing Media under Agroclimatic Conditions of Uthal, Lasbela

Special Article: Peptides and Proteins

Austin J Nutri Food Sci. 2023; 11(1): 1171.

Zinnia Flower Growth and Development Concerning Various Growing Media under Agroclimatic Conditions of Uthal, Lasbela

Aziz ur Rehamn¹; Muhammad Abuzar Jaffar¹; Noor Muhammad²*; Ghulam Khaliq¹; Abid Ramzan¹; Aadil Hameed¹

¹Department of Horticulture, Lasbela University of Agriculture Water and Marine Sciences, Lasbela, Pakistan

²Cotton Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agriculture Science, Anyang, Henan

*Corresponding author: Noor Muhammad Cotton Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agriculture Science, Anyang, Henan, Pakisthan. Email: [email protected]

Received: August 28, 2023 Accepted: October 05, 2023 Published: October 12, 2023


A pot experiment to see the way various growing media affect the growth and development of zinnia flowers was conducted at the Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, LUAWMS Uthal. During the summer of February 2019. With seven treatments, the research was set up in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD). Seven different growing media including Soil (Control), Leaf Manure, Coco Coir, Soil + Leaf Manure, Soil + Coco Coir,

Leaf + Coco Coir, Soil + leaf manure + Coco Coir, were used to check the growth of Zinnia plants in pots. Data were obtained for numerous factors including emergence percentage, survival terms of percentage, Number of leaves plant-1, Number of branches plant-1, Plant height (cm), Flower size (cm), Number of flower plant-1, and flower persistence life (days), Days to 1st flower during this course of study. Zinnia’s entire performance was exceptional emergence percentage (94%), survival percentage (91%), Number of leaves plant-1 (40), number of branches plant-1 (10), plant height (54.10cm), days to 1st flower (71), flower size (8.06cm), Number of flowers plant-1 (9.00), persistence life (days) (7.30), the performance of other growing media remained in the variable for different parameters investigated in this study. Thus, treatment (T7) Soil + leaf manure + Coco Coir, is suggested as the ideal growing medium for the improved growth and development of Zinnia in the Uthal Lasbela agroclimatic conditions.

Keywords: Zinnia flower, Growing media; Lasbela; Soil + leaf manure; Agroclimatic conditions; Soil


Zinnias are a great summer annual flower that is increasingly gaining popularity because of their vibrant flowers. It is a member of the Compositae family. It is only found in Mexico and Central America. Due to their superior performance and wide range of colorful blooms, the most popular zinnia types, "Blue Point" and "Oklahoma," are recognized as the best (Dole, 1999). A grouping of 20 species of annual and perennial plants known as zinnia are distinguished by their bright, uniform, disease-resistant, and long-lasting flowers. The most well-known species of Zinnia, which is native to warm, humid areas, is Zinnia elegans, also called Zinnia violacea. Although smaller forms can be found in pots and window planters, traditional uses for zinnias include borders, beds, and cut flowers (Jana and Pal, 1991).

Zinnia flowers prefer rich soil. The soil is well-drained, and the location is sunny. In the plains, seeds are sown between September and October, and in the hills, either between August and October for biennials or between March and April for early flowering varieties. Directly sowed seeds in the garden are simple to grow. About a month early than spring, begin sowing. To lengthen the flowering season, start another season of planting in late spring or early summer. On the topsoil, scatter seeds. The seed will then be softly covered by a light rake. Maintain a moist seedbed until seedlings appear. Seedlings should be spaced 15 to 20 cm apart. To keep the roots of the plant cool and moist, mulch should be applied. Water Zinnia experiences potassium deficiency during dry periods, which shows up as burning on the mature leaf margins. If given more than six hours of daily exposure to 18°C, zinnias will not blossom. The best temperature for maximum flower quality is 2 to 4 degrees Celsius. Nine weeks before the expiration date, buds should start to develop. At 18 to 21 degrees Celsius, seeds will react to light and begin to grow in two weeks.

Zinnia is a wonderful cut flower. When one-half to two-thirds of the floret has opened, the spike is cut. Flowers can be stored at 4 degrees Celsius for up to three days, and they can be stored at room temperature for three to four days. The cut flower's life can be extended by burning the cut ends. The type of growing media used, among other things, influences flower production. Because nutrient availability is critical to good flower production, providing proper growing media is a prerequisite for better growth and production of floriculture crops. Growing media is defined as the medium in which cultivated plants' roots grow (Kampf 2000). Their primary function is to provide support for plant growth (Fermino 1996, Kampf 2000 and Rober 2000). For the growth of horticulture crops of the highest caliber, it is essential to employ the right growing media or substrates. It directly affects the creation and ongoing upkeep of the complex function rooting network. In addition to providing enough anchoring or support, a healthy plant also acts as a reservoir for nutrients and water, allows oxygen to diffuse to the roots, and permits gaseous exchange between the roots and the atmosphere outside the substrate where the roots are located (Richard 1986, Bunt 1988, Fonteno 1996, Agro 1998 and Abad et al., 2002).

When working on the manufacture of commercial flowers, this important component is frequently disregarded. A few research investigations on growing media and their effects on different flower ornamentals, like Lilium, have been undertaken [12], gladiolus (Salim et al., 2002), and phlox [18] has been reported. Nevertheless, no research efforts on zinnia in general, or the Uthal region in particular, have been conducted. The current study will examine how the zinnia plant's vegetative process and growth are impacted by various growing media.

Material and Method

The study was carried out in February 2019 using a Complete Randomized Design (CRD) in the experimental area of the Lasbela University of Agriculture, Water, and Marine Sciences (LUAWMS), Uthal, Lasbela Balochistan. Seeds were sown in seedling trays. Healthy seedlings were transplanted into pots after one month at a height of 3 inches. Pots were irrigated soon after transplantation.

The media were used alone and in combination, as listed below.

Other growth and yield-related parameters were checked and are listed below.


Emergency Percentage

The number of days between the transfer of seedlings into pots and the first flower opening (corolla fully opened) was calculated. The average was then computed.

Survival Percentage

It was calculated by multiplying the total number of transplanted plants by 100 and dividing the total number of plants that survived each treatment:

Survival percentage =

No of Leaves Plant-1

At the time of harvest for each replication plant, the number of leaves per plant (below the inflorescence) was counted, and the mean number of leaves was calculated.

No of Branches Plant-1

When the bloom first appeared, the number of branches on each plant was recorded, and the average was calculated.

Plant Height (cm)

From the point at which each plant emerged from the growing medium to the top of the stem, the height of each plant was measured in centimeters, and an average was determined.

No of Flower Plant-1

From each plant cluster, the total number of flowers was counted, and the average was computed.

Flower Persistence Life (days)

For flower persistence, the number of days that the flower opened before dropping to the ground on the plant was recorded. To observe this characteristic, three blooms per replication were chosen.

Statically Analysis

Statistical software Statistix 8.1 Statistix, 2006 was used to evaluate all of the data gathered. There was an LSD test. The least significant at (P 0.05) was used to match the data analysis of the modification technique and means. Comparing therapeutic superiority based on probability.

Result and Discussion

The results of the study “Effect of different growing media on the growth and development of Zinnia” have been discussed in the sentences that follow.

Emergency Percentage

The data regarding the Emergence % of Zinnia plant as impacted by various growing media is mentioned in (Table 1) The maximum Emergence percentage of Zinnia (94.00%) was noted in pots filled with leaf manure + coco coir + soil (T7), followed by (87.06%) and (77.00%) was noted in pots filled with leaf manure + coco coir (T6), and soil + leaf manure (T5). Respectively (77.13%) and (66.10%) were recorded in treatment Soil+ Leaf Manure (T4) and Coco Coir (T3). Whereas the minimum (56.66%) Emergence percentage was observed in the control. The LSD test suggested that differences in emergence under growing media of leaf manure + coco coir + soil (T7) were statistically significant (P<0.05).