Physical, Nutritional, and Chemical Profile of Innovative Bakery Products

Special Article: Food Characterization

Austin J Nutri Food Sci. 2023; 11(1): 1172.

Physical, Nutritional, and Chemical Profile of Innovative Bakery Products

Pascoalino LA1,2; Ayuso M1,2; Pereira E1,2*; Ferreira E3; Ferreira ICFR1,2; Barros L1,2

¹Centro de Investigação de Montanha (CIMO), Instituto Politécnico de Bragança, Campus de Santa Apolónia, 5300-253 Bragança, Portugal

²Laboratório Associado para a Sustentabilidade e Tecnologia em Regiões de Montanha (SusTEC), Instituto Politécnico de Bragança, Campus de Santa Apolónia, 5300-253 Bragança, Portugal

³Pão de Gimonde®, M Ferreira & Filhas, LDA, EN218, n° 3798, 5300-553, Gimonde, Portugal

*Corresponding author: Pereira E Centro de Investigação de Montanha (CIMO), Instituto Politécnico de Bragança, Campus de Santa Apolónia, Portugal. Email: [email protected]

Received: October 27, 2023 Accepted: November 22, 2023 Published: November 29, 2023


Bakery products are the most eaten up foods worldwide. Among them, bread is regular consumed, due to their composition in macro and micronutrients. Nevertheless, the refined wheat used in traditional baking reduces its nutritional quality, causing some health problems related to obesity and diabetes. In this study, a comparative analysis among five non-conventional bread supplemented with different grains (rye (RB), Chickpea Flour (CFB), Multi-Seed (MSB), Biological Spelt (BSB), Chickpea and Wheat Sprouted Brains (CWSB)) was performed. Their physical profile (texture, colour and pH), centesimal composition, free sugars, and fatty acids was evaluated. Regarding the nutritional profile, MSB and BSB showed a high protein concentration. The highest concentration of PUFA and lowest SFA was registered for the BSB and MSB, respectively. CWSB revealed the highest concentration of soluble sugars. This study demonstrates that partially replacing wheat flour for bread baking is an alternative to improve their nutritional quality.

Keywords: Bread; Nutritional characterization; Chemical composition; Texture; Physicochemical properties; Flour


Bread has been part of the human diet for millennia and is still widely consumed today, with approximately 70 kg of bread per year and per capita worldwide [1]. This food is daily consumed as bakery products by all social classes, being an important source of macro (carbohydrates, protein, and fat) and micronutrients (minerals and vitamins), which makes it an attractive food vehicle for growing the intake of bioactive compounds [2,3].

Its origins date back to ancient Egypt, where it was made mainly from barley. Nowadays, wheat is the most commonly used cereal for baking, although bread can be made with many types of grains or pseudocereals, either alone or mixed. In Portugal, in addition to wheat, other cereals, such as maize or rye, are traditionally used since they are essential crops in some regions of the country [4,5].

Refining wheat during bread baking reduces its nutritional quality as it loses fibre, vitamins, minerals, and phytochemicals [6]. Compared to other breads made with different whole grains, traditional bread is less satiating and increases the postprandial glycemic index [7]. So, the great challenge for the cereal industry today is to innovate and reinvent much of its product, especially by changing its traditional composition, as this seems to be an effective way to improve nutrition. Alternatives such as whole grains, the use of other grains, or the addition of protein-rich flours such as legumes can help improve the nutritional quality of bread and have a significant impact on consumer health [8,9].

The aim of this study was to conduct a comparative analysis of the physical, nutritional, and chemical parameters of five different types of bread, with different flours, made in a traditional Portuguese bakery (Pão de Gimonde®) aiming to develop novel products with better nutritional quality and health benefits. The analysis included the evaluation of colour, pH, texture, nutritional profile (proteins, moisture, ash, fat, carbohydrates, and energy), soluble sugars, and fatty acids. Subsequently, all samples were compared to determine which formulation showed the most promising nutritional, chemical and physical properties. In addition, this work provides a deeper understanding of the differences between the different cereals in the overall physicochemical profiles of the bread, which directly correlate with consumer preference.

Materials and Methods

Sample Preparation

For breadmaking, all breads were made at the Pão de Gimonde® bakery facilities in Gimonde, Bragança, Portugal. Five types of bread, with different percentage of different flours, were analysed - namely Rye (RB), Chickpea Flour (CFB), Multi-Seed (MSB), Biological Spelt (BSB), and Chickpea and Wheat Sprouted Grains (CWSB) (Table 1). After baking, they were cooled, packed in plastic bags, and taken to the laboratory for analysis. Physical parameters (texture, colour and pH) were analysed with fresh bread; and nutritional and chemical evaluations were performed after lyophilised (Telstar LyoQuest Lyophilizer), cruched (model A327R1, Moulinex, Barcelona, Spain), and homogenised the samples.