Turmeric Spent Flour: Value Addition to Breakfast Food

Research Article

Int J Nutr Sci. 2016; 1(2): 1006.

Turmeric Spent Flour: Value Addition to Breakfast Food

Vedashree M¹, Pradeep K¹, Ravi R² and Madhava Naidu M¹*

¹Department of Spice and Flavour Science, CSIR-CFTRI, India

²Department of Traditional Food and Sensory Science, CSIR-CFTRI, India

*Corresponding author: Naidu M M, Head, SFS Department, CSIR-CFTRI, India

Received: May 09, 2016; Accepted: July 22, 2016; Published: July 29, 2016


The study has focused on turmeric spent utilization for preparing of value added products. Dosa also an Indian pan fried product is a power packed healthy breakfast or snack and prepared by raw rice (Oryza Sativa) and black gram (Vignamungo L.). Turmeric Spent Flour (TSF) was added to the batter by replacing rice at 10, 25 and 50% on the weight basis. The batter was fermented at room temperature and was analyzed for its microbial and physicochemical properties. During the fermentation, the batter increased to twice its volume at 28±2 °C. The initial pH of the batter was 6.1±0.3 and after 12hrs, it lowered to 4.9±0.6. The fermented batter showed, L*, a*, b* and ΔE values of 74.6 to 90.7, -4.2 to 2.8, 9.8 to 57.7 and 3.11 to 48.0, respectively. Sensory evaluation of TSF dosa (up to 25%) added was comparable in sensory characteristics with the control.

Keywords: Turmeric Spent Flour; Fermentation; Sensory Evaluation; RVA; Breakfast Food


The ever expanding spice processing industries have to concentrate on the utilization of by products and waste generated during processing of spices by turning into value added products. Turmeric is an important tropical spice primarily valued for its color, aroma and antioxidant properties. It is an essential ingredient of several culinary curry powder formulations and extensively used in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Turmeric has carbohydrate 63-65%, protein 5-6%, crude fiber 4.3% and mineral 2.7% [1]. World production of turmeric is estimated to be about 1.115million tons of which India alone accounts for ~80% [2]. It is estimated that about 200 tons of turmeric oleoresin are exported from India annually. In this process, nearly 140 tons of mother turmeric liquor, termed as Curcumin Removed Turmeric Oleoresin (CRTO), and 18000tons of spent are produced by the turmeric oleoresin industry and this spent does not have any commercial utility. Curcuminoids in turmeric powder contain curcumin, de methoxycurcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin to the extent of 70- 75, 20-18 and 10-7%, respectively [3]. Many reports are available on the pharmacological applications of turmeric like anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, antioxidant, hypoglycemic, hypocholesterolemic anti-mutagenic and anti-cancer [4,5,6,7,8,9]. Leonel et al. (2003) have extracted starch from C. zedoaria, C. longa and C. malabarica; no significant differences were observed between these two species in respect of granule shape, size, and amylose content [10]. Braga et al. (2006) have observed that turmeric rhizomes contained about 40% (w/w) starch, isolated after the extraction of oil from turmeric by using supercritical fluid extraction [11]. Antimicrobial property of turmeric spent in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were reported by [12].

In recent years, spices and their spent are accepted as functional food and nutraceuticals since they provide dietary fiber, carbohydrates, energy, minerals, vitamins and antioxidants required for human well-being and good health [13]. Idli/Dosa is a popular traditional fermented food, prepared and consumed as a staple food throughout India, particularly in a southern part of India as well as in Sri Lanka [14,15]. It is prepared by the acid leavening steam cake made from rice and black gram dhal. They are easily digested and often recommended food for infants and patients [16]. Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Streptococcus faecalis and Pediococcus cerevisiae are the major microorganisms involved in the fermentation process [15]. They produce flavour, enzymes and help in saccharification of starch [17]. Recently, the effect of emulsifiers and ingredients such as oat bran, maize resistant starch and chickpea flour on rheological, nutritional and quality characteristics of the high protein, high fiber and low carbohydrate bread are reported [18,19]. Batters containing soybeans are highly nutritious followed by mung bean batters while the conventional black gram product is organoleptically most preferred [20]. The present work is aimed to provide more insight into the utilization of turmeric spent, and to improve the overall nutritional status of breakfast foods. Hence, the study reports about the partial replacement of rice with TSF in dosa to improve the nutritional quality regarding essential minerals and functional compounds such as curcuminoids.

Materials and Methods

Rice (Oryza sativam L.) and Blackgram (Phaseolus mungo L.) were procured from the local market of Mysore. Turmeric Spent Flour (TSF) was collected from a local Turmeric oleoresin industry. It was tested for residual solvent analysis by GC. All solvents/chemicals used were of AR/HPLC grade and obtained from E-Merck, Mumbai, India and Sigma-Aldrich Co., Missouri, USA.

Batter preparation

Dosa batter was prepared by using raw materials like raw rice, black gram and TSF in 10, 25 and 50% (on the weight basis). Ingredients, were soaked in water for 4hr and ground in a mixer grinder, separately allowed for fermentation at room temperature and was analysed for its Physico-chemical and microbial quality.

Following four treatments provides the ingredients of their respective proportions:

Colour measurement

TSF added along with control was subjected to colour measurement using Hunter Colorimeter (Hunter Associates Laboratory, USA) [21]. The change in colour was measured and compared with the three colour coordinates namely, L*, a*, and b*. Where L* represents the lightness index, a* represents red-green, and b* represents yellow-blue colour components. The instrument was calibrated using a standard white i.e. (L*=90.70, a*=-1.08. b*=0.65 illuminate D65 and view angle 10°C). Chroma indicates the purity of the colour or hue as measured along an axis. Hue angle visualizes how an average person see’s the colour.

Scanning electron microscopy (SEM)

The dehydrated batter powder was mounted on aluminum stubs rendered conductive by coating with gold employing a sputter coater (Polaron PS 3) and examined under SEM (Leo Electron Microscopy, Model 435 VP, Cambridge UK) at an accelerating voltage of 20 kV. After attaining vacuum of 0.1-0.2 Torr and plasma current of 42mA; gold coating was continued for 140s. The samples were examined at 2000X magnification, and a representative microphotograph was taken and presented for interpretation.

Proximate composition

Moisture (44-16), ash (08-01), fat (30-26), crude protein (N Χ 6.25) (46-10), sugars (80-60) and starch (76-11) contents in TSF were determined by AOAC (2000) standard method [22].


Mineral contents of dosa batter powder and also TSF were determined (AOAC 2000) by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS) [22]. Starch (5g) was converted to ash and dissolved in 2mL of concentrated nitric acid. The volume was made up to 25mL using double distilled water. The calibration curves were prepared from standards. The sample solution was aspirated and the concentration was determined.

Bacterial load by spread plate method

Representative 10g portions of batter sample were aseptically weighed and homogenized with 90ml sterile physiological saline (0.85% w/v sodium chloride, pH 7.2). Serial decimal dilutions were prepared with the same diluent and duplicate counting plates were prepared using appropriate dilutions. For surface seeding, 0.1ml of the dilution was spread on the surface of dried plates. After incubation at 35±2oC colonies that appeared on the selected plates were counted as colony forming units (cfu) per gram fresh weight sample. The standard plate count for total aerobic mesophilic bacteria was carried out in spread plates of plate count agar (PCA; HiMedia M091), HiMedia Laboratories, Mumbai 400086, India incubated at 35±2oC for 18-24 hr [23].

Pasting characteristics of batter

The pasting characteristics of batter were determined using micro visco-amylograph (Brabender GmbH & Co., Kulturstr, Germany). By heating 5% batter slurry from 30°C to 92°C at the rate of 7.5°C/min and held at 92°C for 5min and then cooled to 50°C at the same rate and held for 1min at 50°C. Measuring range used was 120 (cmg) at a speed of 250rpm as per the standard protocol. Peak viscosity, hot paste viscosity, cold paste viscosity and gelatinization temperatures were determined.

Dosa preparation

Sodiumchloride (NaCl) was added to the batter at 2% wt/total wt of raw material, and the batter was allowed to ferment for 12hr naturally. No effort was made to control the temperature during fermentation (the aim was to study the physical characteristics of the dosa fermentation as done traditionally); tche temperature varied between 20°C to 26°C [24].

After fermentation, batter (1/4 cup) pours in the centre of griddle from the help of a ladle. Using bottom of the ladle, quickly spread batter outward in a circular motion to a diameter of about 7inches. Drizzle 1/2 teaspoon oil over the top. Leave dosa batter to brown gradually until outer edges begin to look dry, (about 2minutes) cooking on one side only. Later sensory analysis of these samples was carried out by a trained panel in sensory booths.

Sensory analysis

Sensory analysis of samples was carried out by a trained panel using individual sensory booth rooms. Evaluations were conducted under the white fluorescent light, with the booth area maintained at temperature 22±2°C and RH 50±5%. Descriptors were generated by the general agreement of panelists. Samples were presented in porcelain plates coded with 3 digit random numbers. The panelists were recruited and trained as per the standard [25]. A 15 member pool panelists were selected and 7 subjected were participated regularly in the analysis. A glass of water was also presented to cleanse the palate in between the samples. The DQA data were analysed for their significance by LSD at p<0.05. Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA) having 15cm unstructured scale was used for the sensory analysis. Panelists were asked to mark on a scale of 0-15 cm to indicate the intensity of each attribute listed on the score card [26]. The scale was anchored at 1.25cm on either end, representing ‘Recognition Threshold’ and ‘Saturation Threshold’ respectively. The scores given for all the attributes for each sample were tabulated and the mean scores were calculated using Excel spreadsheets. The sensory profilogram were generated based on the group means over sensory attributes.

Results and Discussion

Composition of Turmeric Spent Flour (TSF)

The data on the proximate composition of TSF, presented in (Table 1) shows that the flour had 5.2±0.05% moisture, 7.6±0.04% ash, 5.9±0.07 protein, reducing sugar 11.07±0.04 (%), Curcumin (0.005%) and 0.06±0.01% fat. The starch is the major constituent (52±0.77%) in TSF.