Evaluation of Marine Algal Fatty Acids Supplementation Broodstock Diets on Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man)

Special Article - Diet

Int J Nutr Sci. 2019; 4(2): 1036.

Evaluation of Marine Algal Fatty Acids Supplementation Broodstock Diets on Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man)

Harikrishnan R1*, Balasundaram C2, Devi G3 and Balamurugan P4

1Department of Zoology, Pachaiyappa’s College for Men, India

2Department of Herbal and Environmental Science, Tamil University, India

3Department of Zoology, Nehru Memorial College, India

4Department of Biotechnology, St. Michael College of Engineering and Technology, India

*Corresponding author: Harikrishnan R, Department of Zoology, Pachaiyappa’s College for Men, Kanchipuram - 631 501, Tamil Nadu, India

Received: November 26, 2019; Accepted: December 28, 2019; Published: December 31, 2019


The present study was evaluating the marine algal fatty acids supplementation broodstock diets on Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Four broodstock diets were formulated with 3% (diet I), 5% (diet II), 7% (diet III), and 9% (diet IV) inclusion of algal fatty acids to quantify the fatty acid requirement of the brooders for three consecutive spawning cycles. The reproductive parameters such as fecundity, Midgut gland Somatic Index (MSI), and Gonado Somatic Index (GSI) were measured. The fatty acid level in the midgut gland, ovary, and eggs were also measured. The increasing concentration of algal fatty acids in the four broodstock diets have improved the Midgut gland Somatic Index (MSI), Gonado Somatic Index (GSI), and fecundity of the brooders among three spawning cycle. The n-6 and n-3 series of fatty acids level in the midgut gland, ovary, and eggs varied among three spawning cycles. Among the four broodstock diets, diet III performance was higher than diets I, II, and IV. Maximum fatty acids in diet IV showed comparatively less performance than diet III The present study suggested that algal fatty acids supplemented broodstock diets have improved the broodstock performance in fecundity of farm reared M. rosenbergii brooders.

Keywords: Macrobrachium rosenbergii; Broodstock diet; Algal fatty acids; N-6 and n-3 fatty acids


Research on the formulation of nutritionally complete maturation diets commercially important for crustacean is limited [1,2]. A thorough knowledge on the nutritional requirement of crustacean species is important to formulate broodstock diet to augment seed production. Moreover, research on broodstock diet for most commercially cultured shrimps such as M. rosenbergii is lacking [3]. However, few studies have been carried out the formulated broodstock diet on M. rosenbergii in various aspects of amino acid profile of eggs [4], different levels of phospholipids [1], and polyunsaturated fatty acids [1,5,6]. Although these studies have not considered the blend of essential fatty acids required to optimize the quality of the brood. Further in these studies, the source of n-6PUFA and n-3HUFA is exclusively derived from fish oil [7].

For the past two decades the formulation of aquaculture feeds using fishmeal and fish oil are main ingredients [8-11]. Aquaculture 2010 demonstrated that fish oil to the tune of 0.96 million t or around 75% of the potential supply [12]. However the escalating demand and diminishing availability of fishery byproducts have shown concern over its quality and sustainability to investigate alternative nutrient source [13]. The substitution of fish oil an alternative oil sources, is therefore imperative for the successful expansion of the industry. In the recent years, fish oil replacement has gained considerable attention [14-17].

Various alternative sources have been identified and investigated to reduce the dependency on fish oil [18-21]. The unicellular organisms such as yeast, molds, bacteria, micro algae, and fungi have been used as additives to aquaculture feed formulation. Few studies have been demonstrated that partial replacement with yeast and bacteria. However, there feeds did not yield better survival, growth nor increased the resistance to disease [22,23].

In this regard micro algae constitute a better choice in replacement of fish oil in aquaculture feed industry. The advantages of unicellular organisms in feed is the availability of perfected technical know how for mass production under controlled and environmentally safe conditions. Moreover, the composition of many microorganisms can be manipulated to ensure higher levels of protein and lipid, by enriching with specific essential amino acids or fatty acids [24- 27]. In fact, oil extracts from unicellular algae containing Long- Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (LCPUFA) are already used as nutritional supplements in human infant feeds [28]. Therefore in the present study aims to find out the marine algal fatty acids as a source of n-6 and n-3 series of fatty acids to replacement of fish oil in broodstock diets formulation to M. rosenbergii brooders.

Material and Methods

Brooder collection

Pond reared M. rosenbergii females were collected from Srikandapuram (10° 55’ N, 78° 34’ E) Nagapattinum District, Tamilnadu, India and were transported into laboratory in polyethylene bag filled with oxygenated freshwater. The total length (from tip of the rostrum to the end of the telson) and total weight of the females (after blotting them dry) and male were 15.9±0.66cm and 40.21±1.83g and 17.0±1.41cm and 60.9±0.49g. M. rosenbergii mature precociously in farms between size of 6-10g [29] whereas the wild first maturity between 20-40g [30]. Therefore in the present study was used females weighing around 40g to ensure a good quality on par with size of the wild brooders at first maturity.

Experimental design

Each brooder was tagged individually with different color threads on the telson and transferred into four experimental cement tanks (capacity 3500 L) (Table 1). Each tank was supplied aeration. Prawns were fed with commercial grow out diet during the acclimation period. Country made tiles (size 18cm) were provided as shelter to minimize the interaction of the animals [31,32]. There is no significant difference (P‹0.05) exist among the stocked prawns in terms of morphometric parameters such as total length, carapace length, postorbital length, and total weight among females at the beginning of the experiment. The experimental tanks were maintained under the ambient environmental conditions of the temperature 28±2 °C, photo period 12L: 12D cycle, ammonia 0.028mg L-1, and nitrate 1.61mg L-1, respectively recommended in a previous study [33]. Experiments were conducted in four groups of 8 females and 2 males in each at the ratio of 1 male: 4 female based on previous study [34]. These were used to replace the experimental animals periodically to quantify the fecundity, gonado-somatic, and midgut gland somatic index measurement.