Static Magnetic Field Effect on Differentiation in Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells

Research Article

J Stem Cells Res, Rev & Rep. 2018; 5(1): 1025.

Static Magnetic Field Effect on Differentiation in Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells

Sadri M¹*, Abdolmaleki P¹, Behmanesh M², Abrun S3,4 and Beiki B4

¹Department of Biophysics, Tarbiat Modares University, Iran

²Department of Genetics, Tarbiat Modares University, Iran

³Department of Hematology, Tarbiat Modares University, Iran

4Royan Stem Cell Technology Company (Cord Blood Bank), Iran

*Corresponding author: Maryam Sadri, Department of Biophysics, Tarbiat Modares University, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Tehran, Iran

Received: March 09, 2018; Accepted: April 13, 2018; Published: April 20, 2018

Abstract

Stem cell therapy offers great hope for patients suffering from diseases for which there is currently no cure. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of static magnetic field on cellular differentiation and evaluates 18milli Tesla field effect on human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells neural differentiation which makes them favorable candidates for some clinical applications.

Human cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells were isolated and expanded based on the previously reported experimental conditions and neural differentiation was induced in the presence of magnetic field for the treated samples. Differentiation induction medium was made of a-modified minimum essential medium containing retinoic acid (0.5μM/l) which was replaced with a favorable medium for neural cell growth After exposure made of DMEM F12 (#12660-012) supplemented with Serum-free N2/B27, L-glutamine (2mM), bfGf (20μg/l) and Fetal Bovine serum 5% respectively. All samples were cultured for 3 weeks and were finally observed using light and fluorescence microscopes and examined for gene expression control.

Our data showed that static magnetic field exposure causes Sox-2, Nanong, and Oct-4 gene expression decline, conversely hEAG-1 and Nestin genes expression increase after three weeks post-exposure culture time. The effects became dramatic in the presence of retinoic acid suggesting the auxiliary differentiation induction effect of static magnetic field.

Stem cell showed that physical inducers just like SMF in moderate intensities along with the chemical ones including retinoic acid can enhance HMSCs neural differentiation to produce neural-like cell lineages.

Keywords: Stem cells; Magnetic field; Wharton’s Jelly; hEAG-1; Nestin; Neural differentiation

Abbreviations

HCMSCs: Human Cord Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells; BM: Bone Marrow; mT: milli Tesla; SMF: Static Magnetic Field; MFs: Magnetic Fields; RA: Retinoic Acid; WJ: Wharton’s Jelly; ICC: Immunocytochemistry

Introduction

Stem cells are present in all human organisms and capable of reproducing themselves or switching to become more specialized cells in human body such as cells in brain, heart, muscles and kidney to repair damaged tissue [1]. Recent advancements in basic and clinical research on bone marrow, embryonic, fetal, amniotic, umbilical cord, and adult stem cells have revealed multiple possibilities for stem cell new potential therapeutic uses which emerge as new powerful tools for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine [2].

Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) are pluripotent progenitor cells because of their differentiation and immune-suppressive properties that make them appropriate for transplantation and clinical use [3]. These cells retain the ability of developing into primary germ cell layers of the early embryo, which can differentiate into cells of different connective tissue lineages such as bone, cartilage, muscle and fat of the adult body. A large number of animal transplantation studies showed that MSCs must be differentiated into the residing tissue to repair damaged cells caused by trauma or disease, and partially restore its normal function [4]. Since MSCs have been investigated to grow and differentiate toward a pattern of multilineage differentiation potential to produce different cell phenotypes throughout their life, they are emerging as powerful tools for tissue engineering [5].

Static Magnetic Field (SMF) interaction with the living organisms has been a rapidly growing field of investigation in the recent decades. Some reports clarified that transplantation of bone marrow cells of magnetic-field-exposed mice led to increased numbers of spleen cell colonies (CFU-S 7d) in conditioned recipient mice [6].

While Magnetic Field therapeutic uses for healing human diseases have been stablished from a long time ago, its new application in cancer tissue treatment by altering cell fate leading to malignant tissue differentiation is a novel approach in this area [7]. Differentiation therapy which has been recently characterized as a potentially less toxic approach compared to chemotherapy uses some agents just like Retinoic Acid (RA) to induce cancer cell differentiation [8,9].

On the other hand, SMF can also help differentiation induction in stem cells, so this physical inducer has been employed for its antiproliferative function through differentiation-dependent apoptosis among the malignant cells. SMF differentiation effect has also been stablished by many of the recent studies such as chondrogenic differentiation of adult human bone marrow-derived stromal cells [10].

Mardedzaik et al. showed the SMF enhancing effects on osteogenic properties of Human Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells (HAMSCs). SMF effect has also been noted to accelerate differentiation in human stem cells [11]. The results clearly suggested a direct influence of SMF on the osteogenic differentiation potential of HASCs. These results provide key insights into the role of SMF in changing cell fate [12].

This study has also pointed to some of the already stablished stem cell studies and tries finding new strategies in the field of SMF differentiation effects to clarify some of its potential uses for regenerative medicine research. In particular we have investigated whether 18milli Tesla (mT) exposure MFcan enhance chemicallyinduced neural differentiation or not.

Materials and Methods

Static magnetic field exposure

Exposure to MF was performed using a locally designed Static Magnetic Field (SMF) generator. The magnetic field generator consisted of two coils and a DC switching power supply. The coils were built from a 3.0mm diameter wire, and resistant to heat up to 200°C. Coils had a total resistance of 3ohm (Ω) and the inductance of 2 Henry. These two coils guided the magnetic field through two iron blades with the height of 1 meter and the cross section of 10cm. The electrical power was provided using a 220V/AC power supply equipped with a variable transformer as well as a single-phase fullwave rectifier. The switching power supply could apply a DC voltage up to 50Volt and a current up to 16Ampere to the coil for moderate intensity static magnetic field generation as needed.

In order to cool off the system, a gas chiller with optimum control on temperature was used. This cooling system consisted of an evaporator, an engine, a condenser, and refrigerant gas (Figure 1).