Different Lipid's Sources: Influence on Serum Fatty Acid Profile, in an Experimental Model

Research Article

Austin J Nutri Food Sci. 2014;2(7): 1039.

Different Lipid's Sources: Influence on Serum Fatty Acid Profile, in an Experimental Model

Perris PD1, Fernández I1, Sanahuja MC1, Slobodianik NH1 and Feliu MS1*

1Department of Nutrition, University of Buenos Aires Argentina, Argentina, USA

*Corresponding author: : María Susana Feliu, Department of Nutrition, Scchool of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, University of Buenos Aires Argentina, Junin 956- 2nd Floor (PA: 1113) Caba- Argentina, USA

Received: June 24, 2014; Accepted: August 25, 2014; Published: September 01, 2014


It is widely accepted and recognized, the importance of diet in maintaining health. Diet lipid profile is important to prevent chronic diseases and improve the quality of life of individuals. The objective of this report is to analyze the effect of different sources of dietary lipids with standard and high concentration, on fatty acid profile of growing rats. Experimental diets contained 15 or 40% kcal of fat, provided by butter (B), olive oil (O), sunflower oil high oleic acid (HO) and sunflower oil (S). Control diet (C) was norm caloric, with 15%kcal of fat provided by soy oil. All diets were complete in the others nutrients and were administered for 40 days. Daily intake was similar in all groups. The administration of these diets provoked changes in serum fatty acid profile in response to the differences sources of dietary lipids used, only some changes observed in G group were in response to the high fat percentage.

Keywords: Nutrition; fatty acids; Lipids; Diets; Rats


A balanced and varied diet is important to maintain optimal health status and prevent non-communicable chronic diseases. There are a rapidly increased of the non-communicable diseases, unhealthy diet and lack of physical activity, which are the major causes of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and certain type of cancers.

The Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health proposed that diet must achieve energy balance and a healthy weight; limit energy intake from total fats and change fat intake from saturated red fats to unsaturated fats and towards the elimination of trans fatty acids; increase consumption of fruits and vegetables and legumes, whole grains and nuts; limit de intake of free sugars and limit salt (sodium) ingestion from all sources and ensure that salt is iodized [1].

Children and adolescents who are overweight and obese have a higher risk of cardiovascular disease. There is a close correlation between childhood obesity and obesity throughout life, which increases with age. Preventing obesity in childhood significantly decrease morbidity and mortality in adults [2-4].

A balanced diet formed by the foods that provide an adequate amount of each and every one of the nutrients (carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, vitamins, minerals and water) is that we need to have optimal health. Malnutrition occurs when nutrients are not contributed in the necessary quantities. From a physiological point of view, malnutrition is the result of the imbalance between the specific needs of essential nutrients and energy that the organism demands, and its provision by food.

Dietary lipids have a very important role in nutrition and must be consumed in proper proportion. From a publication made in 1929 by George and Mildred Burr [5], lipids were no longer seen such a simple source of energy; the experimental study performed in rats showed that with the administration of a diet without lipid , animals fell ill and mostly ended up dying. Then, they followed several studies which allowed learning new features. Today the lipids are recognized as the most concentrated source of energy, source of essential fatty acids, vehicle of fat-soluble vitamins (vitamins A,D,K and E), confer palatability to the food, produce satiety and play an important role immune modulator.

A modified diet, particularly in its lipid profile combined with regular physical activity, can prevent, delay, or reverse the development of Coronary Heart Disease, with subsequent reduction in cardiovascular events. [6-11]

Fatty acids (FA) have different functions: participate in the formation of phospholipids membrane, precursors in the synthesis of prostaglandins, thromboxanes, leukotrienes and prostaciclines, being involved in the regulation of blood pressure, platelet aggregation, modulation of inflammatory processes, etc. The ω3 FA are cardiovascular health protectors: reduce blood concentrations of triglycerides and cholesterol, produce weak platelet aggregation, prevent arrhythmias, and improve microcirculation. The consumption of ω6 FA lowers total and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) [8,12,13].

The FA families: ω3, ω6 and ω9 (oleic acid), share the same biosynthetic route using the same enzymes (desaturases and elongates). These enzymes have greater affinity for the ω3 series; nevertheless, high levels of linoleic acid (LA) can inhibit the conversion of Alfa-linolenic acid (ALA) in Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Thus, for each unit of ω3 FA supplied by diet, 5-10 units of ω6 should be consumed (FAO-WHO). In most Western countries, diets are usually unbalanced, with very high intake of ω6 FA (ω6/ ω3 ratio= 15-20:1), as it is the case in our country, with a high consumption of sunflower oil. On the other hand, the type and quantity of FA from the diet usually consumed, has a direct effect on the concentration of plasma lipids and on the different lipoprotein [14-17].Taking into account the exposed and the importance of the quantity and balance of lipids in the diet on the progress of cardiovascular diseases and obesity, the aim of this study is to analyze the effect of diets containing 15 or 40 Kcal of lipids in 100 total Kcal (F%), from different sources, for 40 days, on serum fatty acids profile, in growing rats.

Methods and Materials


Wistar rats were obtained from a closed colony at the breeding unit from the Food Science and Nutrition Department (Faculty of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, Buenos Aires University). During all the experiments, animals were housed individually in screen-bottom cages and exposed to a 12 hour light-darkness cycle (7.00 AM to 7.00 PM) room temperature was kept at 21°C±1.0. The rats were suckled since birth to weaning (21-23 days) in groups of 6-8 pups per dam. At weaning (35-40g), the animals were fed for 40 days with diets containing 15 or 40 F%. Water and diet were offered "ad labium". Diet consumption of each rat was calculated every 2 or 3 days.

Each experience was performed in duplicate using 6-8 animals per group and the results are the average of them.

At the end of the experimental feeding period and after a 4 hour fasting, the animals were anesthetized with ketamine/xylazine and were killed.

The protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee of University of Buenos Aires and all procedures were in accordance with the department's guide for the care and use of laboratory animals.


The sources for both lipids concentrations-expressed as 15 or 40 Kcal of lipids in 100 total Kcal (F %) was: butter (B Diet); olive oil (O Diet); sunflower oil high oleic acid (HO Diet) and sunflower (S Diet).

The control group received a norm caloric diet containing F% 15% fat provided by soy oil (C Diet). Composition of experimental and control diets is presented in Table 1.