Are There Organoleptic Differences between Micronutrients Fortified Pure Natural Milk and Fortified Constituted Milk?

Special Article - Protein Diet

Austin J Nutri Food Sci. 2018; 6(2): 1103.

Are There Organoleptic Differences between Micronutrients Fortified Pure Natural Milk and Fortified Constituted Milk?

Van TK¹*, Thuc VTM², Nga TT¹, Tu NS¹ and Tu NTN¹

¹National Institute of Nutrition, Vietnam

²Department of Immunology, Otorhinolaryngology Hospital, Vietnam

*Corresponding author: Van TK, National Institute of Nutrition, 48 Tang Bat Ho, Hanoi, Vietnam

Received: April 02, 2018; Accepted: April 25, 2018; Published: May 02, 2018


Introduction: The school age (6-11) is an important stage and a nutritionally vulnerable age group. Sensory acceptance for fortified micronutrients milk is required to expand the milk program to improve nutrition for school children on a nationwide scale.

Objective: Assessing organoleptic acceptance of fortified micronutrients milk in primary school children in PhuBinh district, Thai Nguyen province, and a rural district in the Northern mountain of Vietnam.

Method: Fortified micronutrients milk formula was developed base on the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations. Children were chosen from the subjects that participated in the effectiveness study of fortified micronutrients 100% natural milk and fortified micronutrients constituted milk to involve in the sensory acceptance research using the hedonic scale (9 points).

Results: Dietary intake in the research met the recommended dietary allowances for varying age groups of energy from 6.6% to 10.7%, of protein from 10.8% to 21.6%, of vitamin A from 19% to 25.3%, of vitamin D approximately 12.7%, of water-soluble vitamins from 13% to 36%, of iron from 15% to 30.9%, zinc from 16.7% to 30% and other minerals from 10.1% to 36%. Chi-square test gave a p-value<0.0001, showing a significant difference in the result of organoleptic acceptance ranging from terrible to great. The number of acceptance was much higher than that of unacceptance. Fisher extract test gave a p-value>0.05, showing no significant difference between the group of fortified micronutrients 100% pure natural milk and that of the fortified constituted milk for the score of larger than 5 among all organoleptic qualities including color, taste, smell, flavorful and overall acceptance.

Conclusion: fortified micronutrients 100% pure natural milk and that of constituted milk can be used for school children in Vietnam under the standpoint of sensory acceptance.

Keywords: Fortified micronutrients milk; Micronutrients; Organoleptic acceptance


Stunting is common in developing countries, resulting in high mortality rate and diseases [1]. Micronutrient Deficiency (MD) is one of the main reasons for the current state of stunting [2]. MD has led to children unable to develop both the mentality and physicality to its optimal; iron, zinc and iodine when are deficient have negative effects on the development of children [3]. Therefore, intervention to improve the MD status is essential in developing countries including Vietnam. The Copenhagen Consensus of 2012 has recognized the big effects of these interventions and has deemed them imperious with high cost-effective values in improving public health of developing and affected countries [4].

The reason for MD is the dietary intake unable to provide necessary micronutrients for body demands [5,6]. In the same subject group, it is more common to see multiple micronutrients deficiency than a single vitamin or mineral [7-9]. MD, especially vitamin A, iron, zinc and iodine, is a public health problem in Vietnam with children as the main target. In Vietnamese dietary intake, average iron intake is 6.5mg/day, reaching only 73% of the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) [10,11]. Vitamin A meets 65% of the RDA. In the North, Central Highlands and Central Vietnam, retinol vitamin A reach 34%, 36% and 42% of the RDA, respectively [10]. According to the national nutrition survey in 2010, in groups of Vitamin D and/or Calcium rich foods, fish and tofu consumption in children is 11% while all dairy products is 19% daily. This shows that, the average vitamin D and calcium consumption of children under the age of 5 is approximately 0.5μg/person/day and 256.8 mg/person/ day, respectively. These consumptions only provide 60.3% average calcium requirements and 10.6% average Vitamin D requirements for children between the age of 1 and 3 [10].

Pre-puberty and puberty is an important stage in developing a child’s physicality, requiring focus both in nutrients intake and exercises [12]. Nutrients supplementation is essential to prevent and control MD in the diets of this age. “School milk” is one of the strategic programs with the aim to improve nutrition status for children aged 6 to 12. Fortifying micronutrients in milk is thus a tool to provide more micronutrients in diet to meet the children’s RDA and is one of the sustainable and cost effective interventions. Vietnam has already implemented food fortification programs for years; milk is food vehicle with advantages of fortifying micronutrients for school age children. The program is supported by the government and society nationwide. Furthermore, micronutrients such as iron, Vitamin A, zinc and Vitamin B groups can also be fortified to milk. There are several studies showing sensory acceptability and effectiveness of single micronutrient fortified milk (iron, zinc) in improving nutritional status. However, there is not study on the organoleptic acceptability of multi-micronutrients fortified milk.

Vietnam is a country with milk consumption remaining low (around 19%). In order to increase this rate, and improve effectiveness of multi micronutrients fortified milk for school age children, sensory acceptability of micronutrient fortified milk requires to be studied carefully before producing nationwide. Therefore, the aim of the research is to assess the sensory acceptability and acceptance to micronutrient fortified milk. The result of this research is the basis to create micronutrients fortified milk with the formula and sensory appropriate for different age groups, allowing the development of the program on a nationwide scale.

Methods and Subjects

Prospective study is conducted to evaluate organoleptic characteristics together with the effectiveness study.

Research product

Milk used in research are provided by Vinamilk Corp. consist of 100% natural milk which is branded 100% natural milk and constituted milk which is branded ADM gold. Micronutrients fortified formula for both types of milk were designed based on recommendations of the WHO [7] and Nutritional Requirements for Vietnamese people to increase micronutrients for children age 2 to 12. All products have labels with the formula imprinted and legalized on the market based on Vietnam Food Administration and the Ministry of Health.

Research subjects

Children were chosen from 2094 subjects from 6 primary school of 5 communities of PhuBinh District Thai Nguyen Province. These children consumed milk based on effectiveness study of fortified micronutrient pure 100% milk and that of constituted milk.

Research design

Children participated in the research were chosen from 2 groups of the effectiveness study of fortified micronutrient milk and the micronutrients status of which one group drink 100% pure fortified micronutrient milk (100% pure milk) and another drinks fortified micronutrient constituted milk (ADM Gold).

Children participating in the research drink 2 boxes of milk 180 ml each day and drink designated type of milk for that research group. Time of consumption is around 9:00 a.m. and 3:00 p.m. Teachers distributed the milk and checked whether it was fully consumed, recorded the amount of milk consumed and medical record (if present) of children in the process of research.

Analysis of main nutrients level includes lipid, protein, carbohydrate and calcium to ensure those in both milks are similar. The formula for micronutrients fortification of both milks is also similar.

After 6 months of intervention, organoleptic study was implemented for approximately 20% of the research subjects and 360 children from two genders and aged from 1 grade to 4 grade were chosen in the two groups. The group of 100% pure milk had 188 children and the group of ADM Gold milk had 172.

Criteria for organoleptic assessment

Children participating in the organoleptic assessment were asked their feeling about criteria of color, smell, taste, flavorful and overall acceptance of fortified micronutrients milks and rated each criteria following the Hedonic scale from 1 (terrible) to 9 (great). Points from 6-9 is consider sensory acceptance, 5 is neutral and 1 to 4 is sensory unacceptance (Figure 1).